Roe II DD-418 - Historia

Roe II DD-418 - Historia


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Roe II DD-418

Roe II (DD-418: dp. 1,620; 1. 348 '; b. 36'1 "; dr. 11'5" (media); s. 35 k .; cpl. 192; a. 4 5 ", 8 21 "tt .; cl Sims) El segundo Roe (DD-418) fue depositado el 23 de abril de 1938 por el Charleston Navy Yard, Charleston, SC, inaugurado el 21 de junio de 1939, patrocinado por la Sra. Eleanor Roe Hilton, y encargado el 5 de enero de 1940 , Teniente Comandante. R. M. Seruggs al mando. Tras el shakedown, Roe realizó ejercicios a lo largo del este y en el Pacífico. En la primavera de 1941, regresó a la costa este y, durante el verano, permaneció principalmente en el área de la costa del Atlántico medio. En el otoño, se trasladó hacia el norte, a Argentia, para escoltar los convoyes mercantes entre Terranova y Ieeland. En ese deber, cuando Estados Unidos entró en la Segunda Guerra Mundial, Roe se dirigió al sur en enero de 1942, patrulló los accesos a Bermudas y Norfolk, y en a mediados de febrero entró en el puerto de Nueva York, de donde reanudó las carreras de convoyes del Atlántico norte. Al llegar a Ieeland el 3 de marzo, permaneció hasta mediados de mes, en el puerto y de patrulla frente a esa isla y en el estrecho de Dinamarca. Hacia fines de mes, Roe regresó a Nueva York. En abril, escoltó barcos a Panamá y luego pasó mayo en aguas de Nueva Inglaterra. En junio, completó otra carrera por el Atlántico Norte, esta vez al Reino Unido y en julio inspeccionó barcos más grandes en operaciones de entrenamiento costeras y caribeñas. A mediados de agosto, el destructor volvió a apuntar su proa hacia el sur. En octubre, operó entre Trinidad y los puertos de Brasil, luego regresó a Norfolk para prepararse para la Operación "Antorcha", los desembarcos en el norte de África. Asignada al Grupo de Ataque del Norte, Roe examinó los transportes a Mehedia y luego brindó apoyo con disparos a las tropas. mientras empujaban para tomar Port Lysutey, el río Sebou y el campo de Sale. Llegó fuera del área de asalto en la noche del 7 al 8 de noviembre, antes que el grupo principal, y, con su radar SG, intentó localizar el submarino baliza, Shad. Indiferente, fijó su propia posición en relación con los muelles y las playas de la zona de aterrizaje, y regresó a la fuerza principal para ayudar a guiarla al área de transporte. Durante los aterrizajes de la madrugada, actuó como destructora de control en las playas Azul y Amarilla, luego pasó a tareas de apoyo a los disparos. Poco después del amanecer, ayudó a Savannah (CL-42) a silenciar temporalmente el fuego hostil de la Kasba, una antigua ciudadela situada en un eliff que dominaba la desembocadura del Sebou. Durante ese día y hasta el 15, Roe permaneció en el área para proporcionar disparos. apoyar y proteger los barcos más grandes. Luego giró hacia el oeste y regresó a Hampton Roads el día 26. Durante el invierno y la primavera siguiente de 1943, Roe volvió a realizar trabajos de escolta con tanques a los puertos petroleros del Golfo y el Caribe y convoyes de reabastecimiento y refuerzo a Casablanca. El 10 de junio, partió de Nueva York hacia el Mediterráneo y su segundo asalto, la Operación "Husky", la invasión de Sicilia. Al llegar a Orán a finales de mes, continuó hacia Bizerta, de donde navegó hacia el norte con el "Joss". "Fuerza de Lieata el 8 de julio. El día 9 ocupó su puesto en la zona de apoyo del fuego frente a la playa Roja, cerca de la Torre de Gaffe. Temprano el día 10, ella y Swanson (DD-443) se trasladaron hacia Porto Empedoele, una base de botes de motortorpedo italiana custodiada por un campo de minas a 24 millas al oeste de Licata, para investigar pequeños pips que se habían registrado en sus pantallas de radar. Mientras ambos destructores se preparaban para abrir fuego contra los barcos "enemigos", Roe se desvió para evitar el campo minado y, al mismo tiempo, caer en la popa de Swanson. Su velocidad, sin embargo, excedió la de Swanson y, justo antes de las 0300, Roe golpeó a Swanson en ángulo recto en el lado de babor cortando una parte de su propio arco y provocando que la sala de fuego de Swanson se inundara. Ambos barcos se hundieron en el agua. Afortunadamente a las 0500 ambos estaban móviles. A medida que aumentaba la luz del día, la Luftwaffe intentó terminar con los barcos dañados. Los destructores se defendieron y en el proceso derribaron a un Ju. 88 con 13 rondas de fuego de 5 pulgadas fusionado por influencia de proximidad para demostrar el valor del nuevo fusible en la lucha antiaérea. Después de un parche temporal en Oran, Roe regresó a Nueva York para reparaciones permanentes. A mediados de septiembre, reanudó el servicio de convoyes transatlánticos y completó dos viajes al norte de África antes de fin de año. Con el año nuevo, 1944, Roe fue transferida al Pacífico. Saliendo de Nueva York el 26 de enero, transitó por el Canal de Panamá y atravesó el Pacífico para informar al CTF 76 en Cape Sudest el 12 de marzo. Desde allí, y otros puertos y fondeaderos de Nueva Guinea, escoltó a los barcos de la Séptima Fuerza Phib que transportaban tropas aliadas por la costa y a través de las islas vecinas, y brindó apoyo con disparos en las áreas objetivo. Del 16 al 21 de marzo, apoyó las operaciones en Manus. A principios de abril, transportó al personal del ejército de Manus a Rambutyo, luego se preparó para los desembarcos en la bahía de Humboldt, que apoyó el 22 de abril. A mediados de mayo, ayudó a la ofensiva en el área de Toem-Wadke; luego, al final del mes, proyecté LST a Biak. El servicio de apoyo de fuego y la escolta de refuerzos y suministros a Biak continuaron en junio. El día 29, brindó todo el apoyo de fuego a las unidades del Ejército que luchaban al noreste del río Driniumor. Luego, en julio, el destructor se trasladó a Noemfoor para realizar un bombardeo previo al aterrizaje y para dar fuego de apoyo posterior al aterrizaje. A mediados de mes, Roe partió de los Almirantaces y se dirigió a Majuro, donde se unió a la Quinta Flota. Durante las siguientes 6 semanas, sirvió como barco de rescate de aviones en áreas frente a Maloelap, Wotje, Mili y Jaluit. Los deberes de patrulla, piquete y escolta la mantuvieron viajando entre las Marshalls y las Marianas, principalmente estas últimas, hasta principios de diciembre cuando se unió a TG 94.9 para un bombardeo de Iwo Jima. , de donde Roe llevó a cabo dos misiones de búsqueda y rescate y una carrera misericordiosa, llevando a un médico a un convoy con destino a Saipan, antes de emprender nuevos ataques contra Iwo Jima los días 24 y 27. El día 24, Roe hundió un pequeño arrastrero y, con Case (DD-370), envió al fondo otro barco, que se cree que fue un destructor convertido para servicio de transporte rápido. El día 27, destruyó varias embarcaciones pequeñas y dañó edificios e instalaciones antiaéreas en y cerca de la cuenca de botes oeste de la isla. Otra huelga en las islas Voleano y Bonin durante la primera semana de enero de 1945, fue seguida por la disponibilidad en Ulithi y la reanudación de la patrulla. y trabajo de escolta desde Guam. A fines de abril, regresó al área de Voleano-Bonin para realizar operaciones de búsqueda y rescate con piquetes de radar y durante los ataques aéreos contra las islas de origen japonesas. A finales de mayo reanudó sus operaciones en las Marianas y en junio recibió órdenes de ir a la costa oeste. Roe llegó a la bahía de San Francisco el 29 de julio y estaba siendo sometido a una revisión de patio cuando terminó la guerra, el 14 de agosto. Luego, designado para inactivación, Roe fue dado de baja el 30 de octubre de 1945 y fue eliminado de la lista de la Marina el 16 de noviembre. Fue vendida en agosto de 1947.Roe (DD-418) ganó seis estrellas de batalla durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial.


Roe II DD-418 - Historia

Documentos (1941-1944) que incluyen correspondencia, manual de la escuela de vuelo naval, recuerdos y fotografías.

Información biográfica / histórica

Gordon W. Hooper fue un reclutador de la Marina de los Estados Unidos y trabajó principalmente en el noreste de los Estados Unidos durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial.

Alcance y disposición

La colección contiene un Manual de la Escuela de Vuelo de la Marina de los EE. UU. Que se ocupa principalmente del reclutamiento y la capacitación de oficiales navales y personal de la Reserva Naval en los campos de la aeronáutica, la aviación, el servicio seleccionado, el salvamento de vidas, el trabajo de posgrado y el cuerpo de suministros. El manual también contiene información relativa a numerosos buques y submarinos de la Armada de los EE. UU., Incluida su legislación de denominación, puesta en servicio, patrocinio y dedicación con respecto a las finanzas de la Marina de los EE. UU. Y la transferencia de personal retirado y de reserva.

Los materiales relacionados con barcos específicos incluyen un relato del hundimiento de un arrastrero y destructor japonés por el destructor USS ROE (DD-418) cerca de Iwo Jima, la historia del quinto aniversario (1944) del destructor USS LANG (DD-399), una lista de operaciones del LANG participó durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial en un menú de Acción de Gracias de 1944 para el LANG que incluye una lista de oficiales y tripulación, una invitación y un menú para la puesta en servicio del USS SWEARER (1943) y varios artículos fotocopiados.

Se incluyen fotografías del destructor USS J. FRED TALBOTT (DD-156) y del acorazado USS TEXAS (BB-35).

Información administrativa
Historial de custodia

9 de septiembre de 1993, 1 artículo del Manual de la Escuela de Vuelo Naval de la Segunda Guerra Mundial.

25 de mayo de 1994, 13 elementos, programa de menú e historial del barco del USS LANG (DD-399), fotografías de USS TEXAS y USS TALBOTT, y miscelánea. Donación de la Sra. Helen Hooper, Leviltown, NY.


USS Roe DD-418 (1940-1947)

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Lectura recomendada

¿Por qué hay menos mujeres estadounidenses que se someten a abortos?

El verdadero problema de la globalización

Cómo responsabilizar a Trump

Sin conocer esta historia, sostiene Williams, es difícil entender por qué las opiniones provida han tenido tanto poder de permanencia en la política estadounidense, incluso cuando la opinión pública sobre otros temas sociales, como los derechos LGBT y el uso de métodos anticonceptivos, ha cambiado constantemente para convertirse en más permisivo. El aborto, dice, tiene una historia diferente. Sus primeros oponentes pensaron que era su deber, y el deber de su gobierno, proteger a los no nacidos junto a los pobres y los débiles. Creían que su posición ofrecía a las mujeres empoderamiento, no opresión.

Más importante aún, esta historia muestra cuán retorcido se ha vuelto el debate sobre el aborto, ya que los cuerpos de las mujeres y el futuro de los niños se han convertido en terrenos de prueba retóricos para los políticos de izquierda y derecha. Hoy, los demócratas provida están casi extintos, y los republicanos abiertamente pro-aborto rara vez llegan a un escenario nacional como la carrera presidencial de este año. Hace cincuenta años, este no era el caso. ¿Qué pasó con los progresistas pro-vida de Estados Unidos?

Si los primeros defensores de la legalización del aborto en Estados Unidos fueron los médicos, sus oponentes más expresivos fueron sus colegas católicos. A finales del siglo XIX, casi todos los estados habían prohibido el aborto, excepto en los casos en que la vida de la madre estaba amenazada. Como escribe Williams, "Los periódicos de la nación daban por sentado que el aborto era una actividad peligrosa e inmoral, y que quienes practicaban abortos eran delincuentes". Pero en la década de 1930, algunos médicos comenzaron a pedir prohibiciones menos severas del aborto, en su mayoría `` judíos liberales o seculares que creían que los intentos católicos de usar la ley pública para hacer cumplir los propios estándares de la Iglesia sobre la moralidad sexual violaban la libertad personal de las personas '', según Williams. En 1937, la Federación Nacional de Gremios de Médicos Católicos emitió una declaración en la que condenaba a estos partidarios del aborto, quienes, dijeron, "convertirían al médico en el sepulturero de la nación". Aunque algunos protestantes habían estado involucrados en los primeros esfuerzos para prohibir los abortos prematuros, en estos primeros años, la resistencia fue abrumadoramente liderada por católicos.

Algunos hospitales interpretaron las leyes del aborto de manera flexible, confiando en los psiquiatras para certificar que una mujer podría estar en riesgo de suicidio si se veía obligada a llevar su embarazo a término. Pero incluso algunos de los médicos que realizaron estos procedimientos y abogaron por la liberalización de la ley del aborto, como Alan Guttmacher, un ginecólogo de Nueva York que pasó a dirigir Planned Parenthood en la década de 1960 y es el homónimo de una de las organizaciones de defensa del aborto más prominentes de la actualidad. —Rechazado del apoyo total del procedimiento, esperando que el control de la natalidad elimine su necesidad. "No me gusta matar", dijo Guttmacher, pero creía que el aborto estaba justificado si preservaba la vida de una madre.

Mientras tanto, un puñado de tribunales estaba asumiendo un aspecto diferente del debate: si el aborto era una violación de los derechos humanos. De 1939 a 1958, cinco tribunales supremos estatales y el Tribunal de Distrito de los EE. UU. En D.C. emitieron fallos que reconocían la personalidad fetal. Estos fallos se alinearon con las convicciones de los católicos teológicamente conservadores, que creían que la vida comienza en la concepción, y este grupo muy bien pudo haber influido en las decisiones. Como escribió Guttmacher en 1963, "La Iglesia Católica está tan bien movilizada y constituye un porcentaje tan grande de la población que cambiar la ley de cualquier estado en el noreste de los EE. UU. Es prácticamente imposible al menos durante las próximas décadas".

Pero aunque estos católicos pueden haber sido teológicamente conservadores, la mayoría de ellos no eran lo que la mayoría de los estadounidenses consideraría políticamente conservadores, ni a mediados de siglo ni a los estándares contemporáneos. “Hubo algunos políticos conservadores que participaron en el movimiento inicial, pero en su mayor parte, la retórica pública del movimiento tendió a basarse en el liberalismo visto a través de una lente católica de mediados del siglo XX”, dijo Williams. "Es el New Deal, el liberalismo de la gran sociedad".

Para la mayoría de los católicos estadounidenses de mediados de siglo, oponerse al aborto seguía la misma lógica que apoyar los programas sociales para los pobres y crear un salario digno para los trabajadores. Enseñanzas sociales católicas, descritas en documentos como la encíclica del siglo XIX. Rerum novarum, argumentó que toda vida debe ser preservada, desde la concepción hasta la muerte, y que el Estado tiene la obligación de apoyar esta causa. “Creían en un seguro médico prenatal ampliado y en un seguro que también proporcionaría beneficios a las mujeres que dieran a luz a niños con discapacidades”, dijo Williams. Querían un proceso de adopción simplificado, ayuda para mujeres pobres y cuidado de niños financiado por el gobierno federal. Aunque los católicos querían que se prohibiera el aborto, también querían que el estado apoyara a las mujeres y familias pobres.

Sin embargo, otros progresistas adoptaron un enfoque más calculador de la pobreza y la planificación familiar. Algunos defensores del New Deal creían que el control de la natalidad podría usarse para implementar la política del gobierno, un medio para reducir el número de personas en la pobreza y, en última instancia, ahorrar dinero al estado, dijo Williams. Más tarde, a medida que la tecnología facilitó la detección de deformidades fetales, los defensores del aborto solían argumentar que las mujeres deberían tener la opción de interrumpir sus embarazos si los médicos veían irregularidades. "Era una creencia generalizada entre los defensores de la liberalización del aborto ... que la sociedad estaría mejor si nacieran menos bebés con deformaciones graves", dijo Williams. Los católicos que se oponían al aborto "vieron esto como una perspectiva muy utilitaria", dijo. "Si creyeras que el feto es un ser humano, esta vida sería destruida por la calidad de vida de otra persona, y ellos vieron esto como una forma de pensar muy peligrosa".

A veces, había un componente racial oscuro en la retórica a favor del aborto y el control de la natalidad. A principios del siglo XX, por ejemplo, “hubo un apoyo sustancial en algunas áreas del país para el uso eugenésico del control de la natalidad para limitar las capacidades reproductivas de las mujeres pobres, sexualmente promiscuas o con discapacidades mentales, especialmente aquellas que eran afroamericanas, Williams escribe en su libro. Décadas más tarde, cuando el gasto en ayuda pública se disparó en la década de 1960, un nuevo tipo de racismo entró en el debate sobre el aborto. “Muchos blancos estereotipaban a los beneficiarios de la asistencia social como mujeres afroamericanas solteras que habían quedado embarazadas fuera del matrimonio y estaban 'criando hijos como cultivo comercial', como dijo el gobernador de Alabama, George Wallace,” escribe William. "Wallace finalmente adoptó una postura firme en contra del aborto, pero como algunos de sus compañeros conservadores", fue uno de los primeros partidarios de la legalización.

Los años 60 vieron la primera ola seria de propuestas de legalización del aborto en las cámaras estatales, comenzando con la legislación en California. Los grupos católicos se movilizaron contra estos esfuerzos con un éxito desigual, chocando repetidamente con algunos obstáculos importantes. Por un lado, el "movimiento" no era realmente un movimiento todavía: los opositores al aborto no se referían a sus creencias como "derecho a la vida" o "pro-vida" hasta que el cardenal James McIntyre comenzó la Liga por el derecho a la vida en 1966. Después de eso, los activistas antiaborto comenzaron a organizarse más. Pero debido a que los católicos habían liderado los esfuerzos de la oposición durante tanto tiempo, el aborto también se había convertido en una especie de “problema católico”, alienando a los potenciales aliados protestantes y votantes. “Los afroamericanos se encontraban entre el grupo demográfico más propenso a oponerse al aborto; de hecho, la oposición al aborto era mayor entre los protestantes afroamericanos que entre los católicos blancos”, escribe Williams. “Pero las organizaciones pro-vida tenían poca conexión con las instituciones negras, particularmente las iglesias negras, y eran demasiado católicas y demasiado blancas para atraer a la mayoría de los protestantes afroamericanos”.

El clero católico comenzó silenciosamente a crear organizaciones a nivel estatal, sembrando la financiación inicial pero haciéndose a un lado para permitir que los líderes protestantes asumieran roles de liderazgo. Muchos también restaron importancia a su oposición al control de la natalidad. “Aceptaron como líderes en su movimiento a cristianos de la línea principal que abogaban por la anticoncepción”, dijo Williams. Y "intentaron proporcionar recursos para las mujeres que habían quedado embarazadas fuera del matrimonio; querían reducir el estigma".

Las primeras grandes pérdidas para el movimiento provida ocurrieron en 1970. Hawai, Alaska y Nueva York se convirtieron en los primeros estados en legalizar el aborto electivo, ya que ya no requieren que los médicos realicen el procedimiento solo cuando la vida de una mujer estaba en peligro. Aunque Hawái solo permitió a los residentes solicitar el procedimiento, Nueva York no estableció el mismo requisito. "En los primeros quince meses después de que Nueva York legalizara el aborto electivo, los médicos del estado realizaron 200.000 abortos", escribe Williams, "al menos el 60 por ciento de los cuales fueron para no residentes".

Muchos pro-vida reaccionaron con horror. Durante mucho tiempo, muchos católicos habían sido “remilgados por participar en una discusión detallada de un asunto que violaba su sentido de modestia y decoro”, escribe Williams. Después de las derrotas legislativas de 1970, sus tácticas cambiaron. Los folletos se volvieron más gráficos. Los defensores de la fotografía fetal estaban encantados y creían que ver las características de un feto como un bebé sería suficiente para convencer a cualquier estadounidense de su personalidad. A medida que los periódicos se inclinaron a favor de los esfuerzos de legalización, los defensores de la vida aumentaron sus esfuerzos para distribuir estas fotos. "Al distribuir estas imágenes impactantes", escribió Williams, afirmaron que "simplemente estaban diciendo la verdad sobre un tema que los medios de comunicación se negaron a cubrir".

A medida que más estados debatieron las leyes liberalizadas sobre el aborto a principios de los años 70, el movimiento pro-vida finalmente encontró su impulso. Aunque sufrieron una serie de derrotas legislativas, también hubo victorias: en 1972, por ejemplo, los defensores del derecho a la vida organizaron con éxito a los votantes en Michigan y Dakota del Norte contra los referendos para legalizar el aborto. Los involucrados en el movimiento eran más diversos que nunca, incluidos pacifistas pacifistas, estudiantes universitarios y, lo que es más importante, muchas mujeres. Parecía que tal vez, solo tal vez, el impulso para la legalización del aborto podría detenerse.

En 1973, todo cambió. En Roe contra Wade y una decisión de acompañamiento, Doe v. Bolton, la Corte Suprema de los Estados Unidos dictaminó que las mujeres tienen el derecho constitucional de abortar, sopesado con la obligación del estado de proteger la salud de las mujeres y sus vidas humanas potenciales. De repente, ser provida significaba oponerse a la intervención del estado en los asuntos familiares o, al menos, a la interferencia del tribunal en los derechos de los ciudadanos para determinar cuáles deberían ser sus leyes estatales. Ronald Reagan, quien una vez firmó una de las primeras leyes de liberalización del aborto del país como gobernador de California, apoyó oficialmente los "objetivos" de una Enmienda de Vida Humana, que cambiaría la Constitución para prohibir el aborto. Nuevos líderes asumieron la causa pro-vida, incluida Moral Majority de Jerry Falwell, que “conectó el problema con un grupo de otras causas políticamente conservadoras, como campañas para restaurar la oración en las escuelas, detener los avances del movimiento por los derechos de los homosexuales y incluso defenderse de la propagación del comunismo internacional mediante la acumulación de armas nucleares ”, escribe Williams. Los defensores cambiaron su enfoque hacia la Corte Suprema y la obtención de jueces que revocarían Hueva. Y en los últimos años, un número significativo de legislaturas estatales ha impuesto restricciones incrementales sobre el aborto, lo que dificulta el funcionamiento de las clínicas y las mujeres se someten al procedimiento.

El aborto también se convirtió en un debate casi exclusivamente sobre género y sexualidad, y en gran parte un debate entre mujeres. Durante décadas, los hombres lideraron los esfuerzos de promoción a favor y en contra del aborto. Las mujeres fueron silenciadas por defecto, en gran parte ausentes de la política y la medicina, o fueron activamente excluidas del movimiento de oposición por el clero católico. En la década de 1970, eso cambió. “El debate sobre el aborto fue un conflicto de género, a pesar de que la mayoría de los defensores de la vida de finales de los sesenta y principios de los setenta habían tardado en reconocer este hecho”, escribe Williams. “No fue un conflicto de hombres contra mujeres, como creían algunos partidarios de la elección, fue un debate entre dos grupos diferentes de mujeres”.

Leer notas de seguimiento

En el lado pro-elección, los partidarios del aborto creían que no solo estaban defendiendo el derecho de las mujeres a controlar sus cuerpos, "estaban dando a las mujeres [pobres] las herramientas que necesitaban para limitar voluntariamente el tamaño de sus familias". Pero algunos opositores también se identificaron como “feministas pro-vida”, creyendo que el aborto les dio a los hombres una excusa para tratar a las mujeres como objetos sexuales. Como escribe Williams, pensaban que "los derechos de las mujeres se respetarían solo cuando se respetaran plenamente sus roles como donantes de vida y madres".

A medida que más evangélicos se unieron al movimiento en los años posteriores Hueva, los miembros del movimiento pro-vida se centraron más en el conservadurismo sexual, uniendo su oposición al aborto con una postura general contra las costumbres de la revolución sexual. Desde los años de Falwell en adelante, el aborto fue simplemente uno de un conjunto de temas conservadores, solidificando la alianza del movimiento pro-vida con el Partido Republicano. Pero, como señala Williams, el Partido Republicano nunca ha sido un hogar completamente cómodo para los ideales de justicia social de quienes iniciaron el movimiento. "Los republicanos habían brindado poco apoyo a la causa pro-vida antes Hueva”, Escribe, y el partido“ prestó escasa atención a la reducción de la pobreza, las disposiciones de bienestar social u otras causas que habían interesado a los líderes pro-vida de una generación anterior ”. Sin embargo, en un mundo demócrata fuertemente influenciado por organizaciones como Emily's List y NARAL, es cada vez más difícil para los políticos de izquierda tomar una posición audazmente pro-vida. Como me dijo el líder bautista del sur Russell Moore en una entrevista el año pasado, “Ojalá estuviéramos en una situación en la que tuviéramos dos [partidos] pro-vida. Comencé mi carrera trabajando para un congresista demócrata pro-vida, y él era pro-vida, pro-familia. Ese mundo ya no existe ".


Mục lục

Hueva được đặt lườn tại Xưởng hải quân Charleston vào ngày 23 tháng 4 năm 1938. Nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 21 tháng 6 năm 1939 được đỡ đầu bởi bà Eleanor Hueva Hilton và nhập biên chế cùng Hải quân Mỹ vào ngày 5 tháng 1 năm 1940 dưới quyền chỉ huy của Hạm trưởng, Thiếu tá Hải quân R. M. Scruggs.

Trước chiến tranh Sửa đổi

Sau khi hoàn tất chạy thử máy, Hueva tiến hành huấn luyện thực tập dọc theo vùng bờ Đông Hoa Kỳ và tại Thái Bình Dương. Và mùa Xuân năm 1941, nó quay trở lại vùng bờ Đông và trong mùa Hè đã hoạt động chủ yếu tại khu vực giữa Đại Tây Dương. Sang mùa Thu, nó di chuyển gần lên phía Bắc, đến Căn cứ Hải quân Argentia, để hộ tống các đoàn tàu buôn đi lại giữa Newfoundland và Islandia.

Thế Chiến II Sửa đổi

Đại Tây Dương Sửa đổi

Sau khi Nhật Bản bất ngờ Tấn công Trân Châu Cảng vào ngày 7 tháng 12 năm 1941, Hueva hướng về phía Nam vào tháng 1 năm 1942, tuần tra các lối tiếp cận quần đảo Bermuda và đến Norfolk, Virginia. Vào giữa tháng 2, nó đi đến Nueva York tiếp nối các chuyến hộ tống vận tải vượt Bắc Đại Tây Dương. Đi đến ngoài khơi Islandia vào ngày 3 tháng 3, nó tiếp tục ở lại cho đến giữa tháng, tuần tra ngoài khơi hòn đảo và tại eo biển Đan Mạch. Đến cuối tháng, nó quay trở về New York và cantó tháng 4, nó hộ tống tàu bè đi Panamá, trải qua tháng 5 tại vùng biển New England. Trong tháng 6, nó hoàn tất một chuyến đi khác vượt Đại Tây Dương, lần này đến tận quần đảo Anh, và trong tháng 7, nó hộ tống các tàu chiến lớn try bin vn luu . Vào giữa tháng 8, chiếc tàu khu trục đi về phía Nam, và cho đến tháng 10 đã hoạt động giữa Trinidad và các cảng thuộc Brasil, rồi quay về Norfolk để chuẩn bị cho Chiến dịnch antorcha Minh lên Bắc Phi.

Được phân về lực lượng tấn công phía Bắc, Hueva hộ tống các tàu vận chuyển đi đến Mehedia, rồi bắn pháo hỗ trợ cho lực lượng trên bờ khi họ tiến quân để chiếm Port Lyautey trên sông Sebou và sân bay Salé. Nó dẫn trước lực lượng chính đi đến khu vực tấn công trong đêm 7-8 tháng 11, dùng radar SG để cố tìm kiếm chiếc tàu ngầm Sábalo làm nhiệm vụ cột mốc. Không tìm thấy chiếc tàu ngầm, nó tự xác định vị trí tương đối của mình nhờ đê chắn sóng và các bãi tại khu vực đổ bộ, rồi quay trở lại cùdn hc lc lc ln vhn vhn vhn Trong cuộc đổ bộ vào sáng hôm sau, nó hoạt động như tàu kiểm soát vận tải tại các bãi Blue và Yellow, rồi chuyển cantó nhiệm vụ bắn pháo hỗ trợ. Trong buổi sáng hôm đó, nó cùng tàu tuần dương hạng nhẹ Sabana áp đảo các khẩu đội pháo đối phương tại Kasba, một pháo đài cổ nằm trên vách núi kiểm soát khu vực cửa sông Sebou.

Cho đến ngày 15 tháng 11, Hueva tiếp tục ở lại khu vực tấn công bắn pháo hỗ trợ, và sau đó hộ tống cho các tàu chiến lớn. Nó sau đó lên đường quay trở về nhà, về đến Hampton Roads, Virginia vào ngày 26 tháng 11. Trong mùa Đông và mùa Xuân tiếp theo 1943, nó làm nhiệm vụ hộ tốngù các tn vi v và Caribe, cũng như các đoàn tàu vận tải chuyển tiếp liệu và lực lượng tăng viện cantó Casablanca. Vào ngày 10 tháng 6, nó rời New York để đi cantó Địa Trung Hải cho chiến dịch Đổ bộ lên Sicily.

Đi đến Oran vào cuối tháng 6, Hueva tiếp tục đi đến Bizerte, nơi nó khởi hành đi lên phía Bắc, đi đến Licata vào ngày 8 tháng 7. Cantó ngày hôm sau, nó chiếm vị trí bắn pháo hãi trngo bn. Sáng sớm ngày 10 tháng 7, nó cùng Swanson di chuyển về phía Porto Empedocle, một căn cứ tàu phóng lôi Ý được bảo vệ bởi một bãi mìn cách 24 dặm (39 km) về phía Tây Licata để xác minh một mục tiêu hiện mn hìn hìn trêu radar. Trong khi cả hai con tàu sẵn sàng để nổ súng vào tàu "đối phương", Hueva cơ động để tránh bãi mìn nên đi vào phía sau của Swanson. Tuy nhiên, tốc độ của nó lại nhanh hơn Swanson, nên ngay trước 03 giờ 00, Hueva đâm trúng trực diện Swanson bên mạn trái, khiến nó bị mất một phần mũi tàu và khiến Swanson bị ngập nước phòng nồi hơi. Cả hai con tàu bị chết đứng giữa biển, nhưng đến 05 giờ 00 cả hai lại có thể di chuyển được.

Sáng hôm đó, máy bay của Không quân Đức tìm cách kết liễu hai con tàu bị hư hại. Hueva Virginia Swanson chống trả tự vệ, bắn rơi một máy bay ném bom Junkers Ju 88 bằng đạn pháo 5 pulgadas với kíp nổ tiếp cận, chứng tỏ giá trị của loại kíp nổ kiểu mới trong việc phòng không. Sau khi được sửa chữa tạm thời tại Orán, Hueva quay trở về Nueva York để được sửa chữa triệt để. Đến giữa tháng 9, nó tiếp nối hoạt động hộ tống vận tải vượt Đại Tây Dương, thực hiện hai chuyến khứ hồi đến Bắc Phi trước cuối năm đó.

Mặt trận Thái Bình Dương Sửa đổi

Cantó đầu năm mới 1944, Hueva được điều động cantó Mặt trận Thái Bình Dương. Nó rời Nueva York vào ngày 26 tháng 1, băng qua kênh đào Panamá, và trình diện để hoạt động cùng Tư lệnh Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 76 tại mũi Sudest vào ngày 12 tháng tố 3. Từ n cáng tàu đổ bộ thuộc Đệ Thất hạm đội vận chuyển binh lính Đồng Minh tiến dọc theo bờ biển và các đảo lân cận, bắn pháo hỗ trợ xuống các khu vực mục tiêu. Từ ngày 16 đến ngày 21 tháng 3, nó hỗ trợ các hoạt động tại đảo Manus. Cantó đầu tháng 4, nó vận chuyển binh lính Lục quân từ Manus đến đảo Rambutyo, rồi chuẩn bị cho việc đổ bộ lên vịnh Humboldt, nơi nó hỗ trợ vào ngày 22 thángày 4, Vào ngày 22 thángày 4. Vào ngày 22 thángày 4 cho binh lính Lục quân đang chiến đấu về phía Tây Bắc sông Driniumor. Đến giữa tháng 5, nó giúp cho việc tấn công tại khu vực Toem-Wakde rồi vào cuối tháng đã hỗ trợ cho các tàu đổ bộ LST tại Biak. Các nhiệm vụ bắn pháo hỗ trợ và hộ tống vận tải tiếp liệu và tăng cường đến Biak được tiếp tục cho đến tháng 6, rồi trong tháng 7, chiếc tàu khu trục Noyo pháo bắn bn trợ sau khi diễn ra cuộc đổ bộ tại đây.

Được thay phiên vào giữa tháng, Hueva rời khu vực quần đảo Almirantazgo để đi đến Majuro, nơi nó gia nhập Đệ Ngũ hạm đội. Trong sáu tuần lễ tiếp theo sau, nó phục vụ như tàu cứu hộ máy bay tại khu vực ngoài khơi Maloelap, Wotje, Mili và Jaluit. Các nhiệm vụ tuần tra, canh phòng và hộ tống tại các khu vực quần đảo Marshall và Mariana, chủ yếu là tại Mariana, kéo dài cho đến đầu tháng 12, khi nó gia nhập J Đội c c nhi mhi . Hoàn thành nhiệm vụ vào ngày 8 tháng 12, lực lượng rút lui về Saipan, nơi nó thực hiện hai nhiệm vụ tìm kiếm giải cứu và đưa một bác sĩ sang một đoàn tàu hướng đến Saipan, trước khi lại lên đường bắn phá Iwo Jima vào các ngày 24 và 27 tháng 12. Trong ngày 24 tháng 12, nó đánh chìm một tàu đánh cá, và cùng với Caso đánh chìm một chiếc khác, được tin là một tàu khu trục nhỏ được cải biến thành tàu vận chuyển cao tốc. Sang ngày 27 tháng 12, nó tiêu diệt nhiều tàu nhỏ, phá hủy nhà cửa và các công sự phòng không ở phía Tây hòn đảo.

Một đợt tấn công khác xuống các quần đảo Volcano và Bonin diễn ra vào tuần đầu của tháng 1 năm 1945, tiếp nối bởi một đợt nghỉ ngơi tại Ulithi trước khi tiếp nối hoạt động tuần tra và hộ tống từ Guam. Vào cuối tháng 4, nó quay trở lại khu vực Volcano-Bonin làm nhiệm vụ cột mốc radar và tìm kiếm giải cứu trong các hoạt động không kích xuống các đảo chính quốc Nhật Bản. Đến cuối tháng 5, nó quay trở lại hoạt động tại khu vực Mariana, và sang tháng 6, nó được lệnh quay trở về vùng bờ Tây. Chiếc tàu khu trục về đến vịnh San Francisco vào ngày 29 tháng 7, và đang trải qua một đợt đại tu khi chiến tranh kết thúc vào ngày 14 tháng 8. Hueva được cho xuất biên chế vào ngày 30 tháng 10 năm 1945 tên nó được cho rút khỏi danh sách Đăng bạ Hải quân vào ngày 16 tháng 11, và nó bị bán để tháo dỡ vào tháng 8 năm 1947.

Hueva được tặng thưởng sáu Ngôi sao Chiến trận do thành tích phục vụ trong Thế Chiến II.


Roe II DD-418 - History

History of USS HULL (DD-350)

Recommended reading for additional DD-350 history

Down to the Sea: An Epic Story of Naval Disaster and Heroism in World War II

(click picture to view cover)

(click picture to view)

Newsweek Battle Baby compliments of Pat Douhan SOM2 DD-350

All DD-350 pages compliments of Dave Vrooman EM3 '60 - '62

USS Cáscara (DD-350), the third of the Farraguts, was the first to be built by a government shipyard. The new destroyer was assigned to the New York Navy Yard for construction. Cáscara was named for Captain Isaac Hull, skipper of USS Constitución in her epic battle with the British frigate Guerriere during the War of 1812. She was the fourth United States vessel and the third destroyer to bear the name. El destructor Cáscara was laid down 7 March 1933 launched 31 January 1934, sponsored by Miss Patricia Louise Platt and commissioned 11 January 1935, with Commander R. S. Wentworth commanding.

Like her two sisters following a shakedown cruise, which took her to the Azores, Portugal, and the British Isles, Cáscara was assigned to the Pacific Fleet. She arrived in San Diego via the Panama Canal 19 October 1935. She began her operations with the Pacific Fleet off San Diego, engaging in tactical exercises and training. The new destroyer maneuvered with the Pacific Fleet for more than five years. , Cáscara was assigned to the Pacific Fleet. She arrived in San Diego via the Panama Canal 19 October 1935. She began her operations with the Pacific Fleet off San Diego, engaging in tactical exercises and training. The new destroyer maneuvered with the Pacific Fleet for more than five years.

During the summer of 1936, she cruised to Alaska. In April 1937 she took part in fleet exercises in Hawaiian waters, ultimately calling Pearl Harbor her homeport when the fleet transferred from the mainland to the advanced anchorage on 12 October 1939. During this increasingly tense pre-war period, Cáscara often acted as plane guard to the Navy's Pacific carriers during the perfection of tactics, which would be a central factor in America's victory in World War II. She continued these operations until the outbreak of the war.

The pattern of fleet problems, plane guard duty and patrolling was rudely interrupted 7 December 1941 when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor and other Hawaiian Military facilities. Cáscara was alongside tender USS Caballo (AD-3) undergoing repairs, but quickly put her anti-aircraft batteries into operation. Her antiaircraft battery chased off several attackers and assisted in splashing others. As the main object of the raid was battleships, the destroyer suffered no hits and with the end of the attack came extraordinary efforts to raise steam. Scant hours later, she was able to sortie from Pearl to escort USS Empresa (CV-6) back to the still-smoking port. During the next critical months of the war, Cáscara operated with Admiral Wilson Brown's Task Force 11, screening USS Lexington (CV-2) in important strikes on Japanese bases in the Solomons. Her return to Pearl Harbor 26 March meant 3 months of convoy duty in the submarine threatened waters between Hawaii, and the West Coast of the United States.

Cáscara was soon back in the thick of combat however. She sailed, on the first anniversary of the Pearl Harbor attack, for Suvu, Fiji Islands, to prepare for America's first offensive land thrust, the amphibious assault on Guadalcanal. In company with her sisters, she departed 26 July for the Solomons, and on the day of the landings, 7 August 1942, she fought off enemy air attacks, screened cruisers during shore bombardment, and then took up station as antisubmarine protection for the transports. Next day she helped repel strong enemy bombing attacks, shooting down several of the attackers, and that evening performed the sad duty of sinking transport USS George F. Elliott(AP-13), burning beyond control, the transport's wounds proved too severe for damage control forces. On 9 August, the destroyer sank a small schooner off Guadalcanal, departing that evening for Espiritu Santo. During the difficult weeks on Guadalcanal, Cáscara made three voyages with transports and warships in support of the troops, undergoing air attacks 9 and 14 September. For the next two years, Imperial Japanese forces felt the presence of the far-ranging destroyer from the Aleutians to the Southern Pacific. DD-350 supported swift strikes against enemy held islands in the Central Pacific, sometimes as a diversion to the true invasion targets, sometimes as a prelude to full-scale landings.

The ship returned to Pearl Harbor 20 October, and spent the remainder of the year with battleship Colorado (BB-45) in the New Hebrides. She sailed 29 January from Pearl Harbor bound for repairs at San Francisco, arriving 7 February 1943. Upon completion, she moved to the bleak Aleutians, arriving Adak 16 April, and began a series of training maneuvers with battleships and cruisers in the northern waters. As the Navy moved in to retake Attu in May, Cáscara continued her patrol duties, and during July and early August, she took part in numerous bombardments of Kiska Island. The ship also took part in the landings on Kiska 15 August, only to find that the Japanese had evacuated their last foothold in the Aleutian chain.

Cáscara returned to the Central Pacific after the Kiska operation, arriving Pearl Harbor 26 September 1943. She departed with the fleet 3 days later for strikes on Wake Island, and operated with escort carriers during diversionary strikes designed to mask the Navy's real objective-the Gilberts. Cáscara bombarded Makin during this assault 20 November, and with the invasion well underway arrived in convoy at Pearl Harbor 7 December 1943. From there, she returned to Oakland 21 December for amphibious exercises. Next on, the island road to Japan was the Marshall Islands, and Cáscara sailed with Task Force 53 from San Diego 13 January 1944. She arrived 31 January off Kwajalein, screening transports in the reserve area, and through February carried out screening and patrol duties off Eniwetok and Majuro. Joining a battleship and carrier group, the ship moved to Mille Atoll 18 March, and took part in a devastating bombardment. Cáscara also took part in the bombardment of Wotje 22 March.

The veteran ship next participated in the devastating raid on the great Japanese base at Truk 29-30 April, after which she arrived Majuro 4 May 1944. There she joined Rear Admiral Willis A. Lee's battleships for a thrust into the Marianas and the invasion of Saipan. Cáscara bombarded Saipan 13 June, covered minesweeping operations with gunfire, and patrolled during the initial landing 15 June. Two days later DD-350 was detached and with other ships steamed out to join Rear Admiral Marc A. Mitscher's fast carriers as the Japanese made preparations to close the Marianas for a decisive naval battle. The great fleets approached each other 19 June for the biggest carrier engagement of the war, and as four large air raids hit the American dispositions fighter cover from the carriers of Cáscara's Task Group 58.2 and surface fire decimated the Japanese planes. With an able assist from American submarines, Mitscher succeeded in sinking two Japanese carriers in addition to inflicting fatal losses on the Japanese naval air arm during "The Great Marianas Turkey Shoot". Hull's accurate antiaircraft fire, now considerably more formidable than the .50 cal. machine guns she used at Pearl Harbor just thirty months before, contributed to the "ring of steel" protecting the carriers from the wrath of the Japanese. Mitscher's forces so decimated the ranks of the Imperial Japanese Navy's aircrews that her carriers were never to effectively threaten the Allies again.

During July, the destroyer operated with carrier groups off Guam, and after the assault, 21 July patrolled off the island. In August she returned to Seattle, arriving the 25th, and underwent a yard refit that kept her in the States until 23 October. When she anchored at Pearl Harbor. Cáscara was assigned to screen the Third Fleet refueling group which kept the fast carriers in the Central Pacific operational, departing 20 November 1944 to rendezvous with fast carrier striking forces in the Philippine Sea.

Suddenly, Hull's luck had changed. Fueling began 17 December, but increasingly heavy seas forced cancellation later that day. The refueling group became engulfed in the approaching typhoon Cobra next day, with barometers falling to very low levels and winds increasing above 90 knots. At about 1100 18 December Cáscara became locked "in irons," in the trough of the mountainous sea and unable to steer. All hands worked feverishly to maintain integrity and keep the ship afloat during the heavy rolls, but finally, in the words of her commander, Lieutenant Commander J. A. Marks: "The ship remained over on her side at an angle of 80 degrees or more as the water flooded into her upper structures. I remained on the port wing of the bridge until the water flooded up to me, then I stepped off into the water as the ship rolled over on her way down."

The typhoon swallowed many of the survivors, but valiant rescue work by Tabberer (DD-418) and other ships of the fleet in the days that followed saved the lives of 7 officers and 55 enlisted men.

Hull received 10 battle stars for World War II service.


William J. Ruhe

Captain William J. Ruhe was born in Allentown, Pennsylvania in 1915, the son of Percy and Amy Ruhe. After his schooling in Allentown, he attended the University of Pittsburgh and the U. S. Naval Academy, graduating from the Naval Academy and commissioned an ensign in 1939.

Prior to World War II he served tours on USS Trenton CL-11 and USS Roe DD-418. After the start of the war he transitioned to the submarine service and made three combat patrols on USS S-37 and USS Sea Dragon SS-194 in the waters off Rabaul and Guadalcanal. Serving as executive officer on USS Crevalle SS-291, he made five combat patrols in the China Sea. He completed the war as the commanding officer of USS Sturgeon SS-187. For his wartime service he was awarded three Sil Captain William J. Ruhe was born in Allentown, Pennsylvania in 1915, the son of Percy and Amy Ruhe. After his schooling in Allentown, he attended the University of Pittsburgh and the U. S. Naval Academy, graduating from the Naval Academy and commissioned an ensign in 1939.

Prior to World War II he served tours on USS Trenton CL-11 and USS Roe DD-418. After the start of the war he transitioned to the submarine service and made three combat patrols on USS S-37 and USS Sea Dragon SS-194 in the waters off Rabaul and Guadalcanal. Serving as executive officer on USS Crevalle SS-291, he made five combat patrols in the China Sea. He completed the war as the commanding officer of USS Sturgeon SS-187. For his wartime service he was awarded three Silver Stars and the Navy Unit Commendation

During the Korean Conflict he commanded the USS Sea Devil SS-400, and in 1959 he was assigned as Commander of Submarine Division 22. He also served as commanding officer of the Naval Reserve Center in his hometown of Allentown, Pennsylvania.

Captain Ruhe came aboard USS Topeka CLG-8 as Commanding Officer in December, 1964 and served in that capacity until October, 1965.

After retirement he was employed by General Dynamics as Corporate Director of Marine Programs.

Captain Ruhe wrote two books about his naval service: War in the Boats: My WWII Submarine Battles, and Slow Dance to Pearl Harbor: A Tin Can Ensign in Prewar America. He also wrote the submariners song "Down,Down Underneath the Ocean".

He passed away at his home in McLean, Virginia on November 4, 2003.
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60 Pictures of Easy Company

The 506th, which is part of the U.S. Army’s 101st Airborne Division, was established in 1942 at Camp Toccoa, Georgia, and underwent extensive training under strict rules and regulations. The most physically challenging part of their training was the regular running of Currahee, a 1,735 ft (529 m) steep hill.

The hill itself became an unofficial symbol of the entire regiment, which adopted the nickname “Currahee,” and E Company also adopted the Cherokee word as its motto―We stand alone together.

Major Richard Winters Captain Lewis Nixon & Lieutenant Harry Welsh Austria 1945

While the “E” stands for “Easy,” these men were anything but, jumping into Normandy behind enemy lines as part of the 2nd Battalion hours before the invasion.

During Operation Overlord, E Company was part of the airborne invading force which was to secure the rear and provide cover until the Omaha and Utah beachheads were linked.

Among their most famous endeavors was taking and holding the town of Carentan―a crucial strategic point, without which the outcome of the Allied invasion could have taken a different turn.

General Anthony Clement “Nuts” McAuliffe

After the liberation of France, E Company was sent to assist the British forces around Eindhoven, as part of Operation Market Garden.

In late October 1944, they would play a key role in evacuating over 100 British soldiers who were trapped behind German lines near the village of Renkum, close to the town of Arnhem.

Richard Winters in Holland, October 1944

Their next stop was the winter offensive in December 1944 and January 1945 in Belgium. The men from Easy Company took part in the famous Battle of the Bulge, and fought under horrible winter conditions, suffering from a general lack of supplies and ammunition.

Some of their more notable actions from this period involved taking control of the Bois Jacques woods area, and the frustrating attack on the town of Foy, where they dealt with fierce resistance as well as the breakdown of the chain of command.

Easy Company near Foy

However, Foy was eventually captured from the enemy, as the German line in Bastogne fell apart. The figurative gates of Germany were finally open.

As the war was nearing its end, the company was assigned to occupation duties which included guarding Berchtesgaden, better known as Adolf Hitler’s famous Eagle’s Nest. E Company’s contribution to the fight was rewarded with patrol duties in mostly safe areas during the last few months of the war.

Although the 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment is still in service as a training unit of the U.S. Army, the direct lineage of E Company is today inactive.

More photos

Richard Winters and Harry Welsh

Popeye Wynn and Hank Zimmerman

Burr Smith was killed by a direct mortar hit along with PENKALA near FOY

Joe Lesniewski Herbert M. Sobel Sr.

Staff Sergeant Myron N. “Mike” Ranney

Robert “Popeye” Wynn

George Luz and ‘Babe’ Heffron

David Webster

David Kenyon Webster

Floyd Talbert, unidentified soldier, Paul Rogers and Forrest Guth

Richard Winters (facing the camera in the back) teaching his soldiers to pack their parachutes. Skip Muck is the man on the right looking at the camera.

Richard Winters and Harry Welsh

William Dukeman Pat Christenson, Denver ‘Bull’ Randleman and Bill Dukeman

Joe Toye and Don Malarkey

Easy Company

Don Malarkey, Joe Toye and Skip Muck

Donald Hoobler

William J. “Wild Bill“ Guarnere

Joe Liebgott Earl McClung

Floyd Talbert Earl ‘One Lung’ McClung Don Malarkey and Floyd Talbert

Captain Richard D. Winters and Captain Lewis Nixon

Skip Muck and Chuck. Easy Company, 2nd Battalion, 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division.

Lynn D. Campton, Easy Company

Easy Company members Joe Liebgott, Eugene Roe and Burton Christenson in Eindhoven, 1944.

101st Airborne Medic Eugene Roe, a member of Easy Company, Band of brothers.

Carwood Lipton

Frank Perconte

Left to right: Forrest Guth, Floyd Talbert, John Eubanks, unknown, Francis Mellet on D-Day

George Luz (1921-1998) Fought in Normandy, the Netherlands, and the Battle of Bulge. Luz is credited with keeping Easy Company morale up with his humor in dire times.

Smith, Muck, Malarkey, Randelmann, Serila, Sheehy, Burgess, Lowery, Grant, Cunningham, bain, Toye at Camp McKall

Easy Company’s David Kenyon Webster, author of “Parachute Infantry – An American Paratrooper’s Memoir of D-Day and the Fall of the Third Reich”

Forrest Guth and Floyd Talbert with locals on D-day morning

Albert Blithe at Camp Toccoa, Georgia, in 1942.

Eugene Roe

Forrest Guth (1921 2009) One of the original 140 men who trained under Sobel at Camp Toccoa. Guth had the ability to repair and modify weapons. For instance he could make an M-1 rifle fully automatic. He became the armorer for his comrades. Guth’s uniform was also unique Guth sewed many extra pockets on it. Guth fought in D-Day, the Netherlands, and the Battle of Bulge.

William ‘Wild Bill’ Guarnere

Colonel Robert Frederick Sink

Don Malarkey, left, with Burr Smith in Austria near war’s end.

Technical Sergeant Donald Malarkey

Major Richard Winters.

Staff Sergeant Darrell Powers

Private First Class Edward Heffron

Richard Winters at the end of training

Gordon Carson and Frank Perconte, Easy Company, 101st Airborne

Captain Herbert M. Sobel

Easy Company during Operation Market Garden

Brigadier General Anthony McAuliffe and his staff gathered inside Bastogne’s Heintz Barracks for Christmas dinner December 25th, 1944. This military barracks served as the Division Main Command Post during the siege of Bastogne, Belgium during World War II.


A. V. Roe and Company (Avro)

A. V. Roe and Company, better known simply as Avro, was one of the most famous of all British aircraft manufacturers, best known for the iconic Avro Lancaster bomber. Originally founded in 1910 by the aircraft pioneer Alliot Verdon Roe, by the time the Lancaster appeared the company was part of the Hawker Siddeley Group, while Roe himself had moved on to form Saunders-Roe Ltd.

A. V. Roe&rsquos interest in aircraft developed before the First World War. His first design was the Roe I Biplane of 1907, which lacked a powerful enough engine to take off without assistance, until one was loaned in 1908. On 8 June 1908 Roe successfully took to the air, although only for a series of short hops.

A. V.&rsquos brother H. V. Roe was himself a successful businessman, and owner of Everard and Company of Brownsfield Mills, Manchester. On 1 January 1910, with financial assistance from H. V., A. V. Roe and Company was founded. The fledgling company was given engineering space at Brownsfield Mills. The first aircraft produced by the new company was the Roe II Triplane, one of a series of early designs that culminated in the Avro 500 biplane of 1912, considered by Roe to be his first truly successful design. A. V. Roe was responsible for a number of &ldquofirsts&rdquo, amongst them the Avro Type F of 1912, the first aircraft to fly with an entirely enclosed cockpit.

All of these early aircraft were produced in very small numbers, but the Avro 504 would change that, with 8,340 built over two decades. A tiny number of these aircraft saw front line service during the First World War with the R.F.C, while the R.N.A.S. used the Avro 504 during its famous raid on the Zeppelin sheds at Freidrichshafen on 21 November 1914. Despite this its main claim to fame, and the reason so many were built, was that the Avro 504 became the standard training aircraft for the young R.A.F.

The interwar years saw the arrival of Roy Chadwick, later famous as the designer of the Lancaster, and the departure of A. V. Roe. In 1928 he sold the company to J. D. Siddeley, and Avro became part of the Armstrong Siddeley Development Company and a sister-firm of Armstrong Whitworth. Siddeley followed suit in 1935 when he sold out to Hawker, and Avro became part of the Hawker Siddeley Aircraft Group.

A large number of new designs were produced between the wars, with most produced in small numbers. The next major success was the Avro 621 Tutor, which replaced the Avro 605 in RAF service. This aircraft was designed in 1929, and remained in service throughout the Second World War.

The next major success for Avro was the Anson, of which over 11,000 were produced. Originally ordered as a coastal reconnaissance aircraft, the Anson was soon replaced in that role by the Lockheed Hudson, but went on to serve as a training aircraft.

The most famous of all Avro aircraft was the Lancaster. This was developed from the much less successful Avro Manchester, a very similar looking but twin engined aircraft, which was led down by the failure of the Rolls-Royce Vulture engine. The Lancaster saw the twin Vultures replaced by four much more reliable Merlin engines, producing one of the finest aircraft of the Second World War.

The design of the Lancaster was used as the basis for the Avro York transport aircraft, the Avro 691 Lancastrian passenger plane and the post-war Avro 694 Lincoln, originally designed for the Pacific war. The Lincoln was further modified to produce the Avro 696 Shackleton, a mainstay of Coastal Command after the war.

A dramatic change in design came with the Avro 698 Vulcan, the first large delta wing aircraft, and Avro&rsquos first military jet aircraft. Over the next decade the company produced a number of civil airlines, but the Avro name disappeared in July 1963 when the company became part of Hawker Siddeley Aviation.

Major Aircraft
Avro 504 trainer
Avro 549 Aldershot bomber, 1922-1926
Avro 555 Bison carrier reconnaissance and spotting aircraft, 1922-29
Avro 621 Tutor trainer, 1929-1936
Avro 636 Sea Tutor trainer, 1932
Avro 652 Anson maritime reconnaissance aircraft, 1933-1968
Avro 679 Manchester heavy bomber, 1939-1942
Avro 683 Lancaster heavy bomber, 1941-1960s
Avro 865 York transport, 1943-c.1960
Avro 694 Lincoln heavy bomber, 1945-55
Avro 696 Shackleton long range maritime reconnaissance, 1949-
Avro 698 Vulcan heavy bomber, 1952-

British Aircraft Manufacturers since 1908, Gunter Endres. A very useful reference book which provides brief histories of seventy five British aircraft manufacturers, ranging from famous names like Avro or Supermarine, to more obscure firms such as Slingsby Aviation of Kirkbymoorside. The publication date of 1995 means that this book covers the entire history of all but a handful of the main First and Second World War Companies.

Return on Equity (ROE)

Return on Equity (ROE) is the measure of a company&rsquos annual return ( net income Net Income Net Income is a key line item, not only in the income statement, but in all three core financial statements. While it is arrived at through ) divided by the value of its total shareholders&rsquo equity Stockholders Equity Stockholders Equity (also known as Shareholders Equity) is an account on a company's balance sheet that consists of share capital plus , expressed as a percentage (e.g., 12%). Alternatively, ROE can also be derived by dividing the firm&rsquos dividend growth rate by its earnings retention rate (1 &ndash dividend payout ratio Dividend Payout Ratio Dividend Payout Ratio is the amount of dividends paid to shareholders in relation to the total amount of net income generated by a company. Formula, example ).

Return on Equity is a two-part ratio in its derivation because it brings together the income statement and the balance sheet Balance Sheet The balance sheet is one of the three fundamental financial statements. These statements are key to both financial modeling and accounting , where net income or profit is compared to the shareholders&rsquo equity. The number represents the total return on equity capital and shows the firm&rsquos ability to turn equity investments into profits. To put it another way, it measures the profits made for each dollar from shareholders&rsquo equity.

Return on Equity Formula

The following is the ROE equation:

ROE = Net Income / Shareholders&rsquo Equity

ROE provides a simple metric for evaluating investment returns. By comparing a company&rsquos ROE to the industry&rsquos average, something may be pinpointed about the company&rsquos competitive advantage Competitive Advantage A competitive advantage is an attribute that enables a company to outperform its competitors. It allows a company to achieve superior margins . ROE may also provide insight into how the company management is using financing from equity to grow the business.

A sustainable and increasing ROE over time can mean a company is good at generating shareholder value Shareholder Value Shareholder value is the financial worth owners of a business receive for owning shares in the company. An increase in shareholder value is created because it knows how to reinvest its earnings wisely, so as to increase productivity and profits. In contrast, a declining ROE can mean that management is making poor decisions on reinvesting capital in unproductive assets.

ROE Formula Drivers

While the simple return on equity formula is net income divided by shareholder&rsquos equity, we can break it down further into additional drivers. As you can see in the diagram below, the return on equity formula is also a function of a firm&rsquos return on assets (ROA) Return on Assets & ROA Formula ROA Formula. Return on Assets (ROA) is a type of return on investment (ROI) metric that measures the profitability of a business in relation to its total assets. and the amount of financial leverage Financial Leverage Financial leverage refers to the amount of borrowed money used to purchase an asset with the expectation that the income from the new asset will exceed the cost of borrowing. it has. Both of these concepts will be discussed in more detail below.

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Return on Equity Template

Why is ROE Important?

With net income in the numerator, Return on Equity (ROE) looks at the firm&rsquos bottom line to gauge overall profitability for the firm&rsquos owners and investors. Stockholders are at the bottom of the pecking order of a firm&rsquos capital structure Capital Structure Capital structure refers to the amount of debt and/or equity employed by a firm to fund its operations and finance its assets. A firm's capital structure , and the income returned to them is a useful measure that represents excess profits that remain after paying mandatory obligations and reinvesting in the business.

Why Use the Return on Equity Metric?

Simply put, with ROE, investors can see if they&rsquore getting a good return on their money, while a company can evaluate how efficiently they&rsquore utilizing the firm&rsquos equity. ROE must be compared to the historical ROE of the company and to the industry&rsquos ROE average &ndash it means little if merely looked at in isolation. Other financial ratios Financial Ratios Financial ratios are created with the use of numerical values taken from financial statements to gain meaningful information about a company can be looked at to get a more complete and informed picture of the company for evaluation purposes.

In order to satisfy investors, a company should be able to generate a higher ROE than the return available from a lower risk investment.

Effect of Leverage

A high ROE could mean a company is more successful in generating profit internally. However, it doesn&rsquot fully show the risk associated with that return. A company may rely heavily on debt Long Term Debt Long Term Debt (LTD) is any amount of outstanding debt a company holds that has a maturity of 12 months or longer. It is classified as a non-current liability on the company&rsquos balance sheet. The time to maturity for LTD can range anywhere from 12 months to 30+ years and the types of debt can include bonds, mortgages to generate a higher net profit, thereby boosting the ROE higher.

As an example, if a company has $150,000 in equity and $850,000 in debt, then the total capital employed is $1,000,000. This is the same number of total assets employed. At 5%, it will cost $42,000 to service that debt, annually. If the company manages to increase its profits before interest to a 12% return on capital employed (ROCE) Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) Return on Capital Employed (ROCE), a profitability ratio, measures how efficiently a company is using its capital to generate profits. The return on capital , the remaining profit after paying the interest is $78,000, which will increase equity by more than 50%, assuming the profit generated gets reinvested back. As we can see, the effect of debt is to magnify the return on equity.

The image below from CFI&rsquos Financial Analysis Course shows how leverage increases equity returns.

Drawbacks of ROE

The return on equity ratio can also be skewed by share buybacks Dividend vs Share Buyback/Repurchase Shareholders invest in publicly traded companies for capital appreciation and income. There are two main ways in which a company returns profits to its shareholders &ndash Cash Dividends and Share Buybacks. The reasons behind the strategic decision on dividend vs share buyback differ from company to company . When management repurchases its shares from the marketplace, this reduces the number of outstanding shares Weighted Average Shares Outstanding Weighted average shares outstanding refers to the number of shares of a company calculated after adjusting for changes in the share capital over a reporting period. The number of weighted average shares outstanding is used in calculating metrics such as Earnings per Share (EPS) on a company's financial statements . Thus, ROE increases as the denominator shrinks.

Another weakness is that some ROE ratios may exclude intangible assets from shareholders&rsquo equity. Intangible assets Intangible Assets According to the IFRS, intangible assets are identifiable, non-monetary assets without physical substance. Like all assets, intangible assets are non-monetary items such as goodwill Goodwill In accounting, goodwill is an intangible asset. The concept of goodwill comes into play when a company looking to acquire another company is , trademarks, copyrights, and patents. This can make calculations misleading and difficult to compare to other firms that have chosen to include intangible assets.

Finally, the ratio includes some variations on its composition, and there may be some disagreements between analysts. For example, the shareholders&rsquo equity can either be the beginning number, ending number, or the average of the two, while Net Income may be substituted for EBITDA EBITDA EBITDA or Earnings Before Interest, Tax, Depreciation, Amortization is a company's profits before any of these net deductions are made. EBITDA focuses on the operating decisions of a business because it looks at the business&rsquo profitability from core operations before the impact of capital structure. Formula, examples and EBIT EBIT Guide EBIT stands for Earnings Before Interest and Taxes and is one of the last subtotals in the income statement before net income. EBIT is also sometimes referred to as operating income and is called this because it's found by deducting all operating expenses (production and non-production costs) from sales revenue. , and can be adjusted or not for non-recurring items Non-Recurring Item In accounting, a non-recurring item is an infrequent or abnormal gain or loss that is reported in the company&rsquos financial statements. .

How to Use Return on Equity

Some industries tend to achieve higher ROEs than others, and therefore, ROE is most useful when comparing companies within the same industry. Cyclical industries tend to generate higher ROEs than defensive industries, which is due to the different risk characteristics attributable to them. A riskier firm will have a higher cost of capital and a higher cost of equity.

Furthermore, it is useful to compare a firm&rsquos ROE to its cost of equity Cost of Equity Cost of Equity is the rate of return a shareholder requires for investing in a business. The rate of return required is based on the level of risk associated with the investment . A firm that has earned a return on equity higher than its cost of equity has added value. The stock of a firm with a 20% ROE will generally cost twice as much as one with a 10% ROE (all else being equal).

The DuPont Formula

The DuPont formula DuPont Analysis In the 1920s, the management at DuPont Corporation developed a model called DuPont Analysis for a detailed assessment of the company&rsquos profitability breaks down ROE into three key components, all of which are helpful when thinking about a firm&rsquos profitability. ROE is equal to the product of a firm&rsquos net profit margin, asset turnover, and financial leverage:

/> DuPont Analysis In the 1920s, the management at DuPont Corporation developed a model called DuPont Analysis for a detailed assessment of the company&rsquos profitability

If the net profit margin increases over time, then the firm is managing its operating and financial expenses well and the ROE should also increase over time. If the asset turnover increases, the firm is utilizing its assets efficiently, generating more sales per dollar of assets owned. Lastly, if the firm&rsquos financial leverage increases, the firm can deploy the debt capital to magnify returns. DuPont analysis is covered in detail in CFI&rsquos Financial Analysis Fundamentals Course.

Video Explanation of Return on Equity

Below is a video explanation of the various drivers that contribute to a firm&rsquos return on equity. Learn how the formula works in this short tutorial, or check out the full Financial Analysis Course!

Caveats of Return on Equity

While debt financing can be used to boost ROE, it is important to keep in mind that overleveraging has a negative impact in the form of high interest payments and increased risk of default Debt Default A debt default happens when a borrower fails to pay his or her loan at the time it is due. The time a default happens varies, depending on the terms agreed upon by the creditor and the borrower. Some loans default after missing one payment, while others default only after three or more payments are missed. . The market may demand a higher cost of equity, putting pressure on the firm&rsquos valuation Valuation Principles The following are the key valuation principles that business owners who want to create value in their business must know. Business valuation involves the . While debt typically carries a lower cost than equity and offers the benefit of tax shields Tax Shield A Tax Shield is an allowable deduction from taxable income that results in a reduction of taxes owed.El valor de estos escudos depende de la tasa impositiva efectiva para la corporación o individuo. Los gastos comunes que son deducibles incluyen depreciación, amortización, pagos hipotecarios y gastos por intereses; el mayor valor se crea cuando una empresa encuentra su estructura de capital óptima que equilibra los riesgos y las recompensas del apalancamiento financiero.

Además, es importante tener en cuenta que el ROE es un índice, y la empresa puede tomar acciones como amortizaciones de activos Deterioro El deterioro de un activo fijo puede describirse como una disminución abrupta en el valor razonable debido a daños físicos, cambios en las leyes existentes que crean y recompras de acciones Recompra de acciones Una recompra de acciones se refiere a cuando la administración de una empresa pública decide recomprar acciones de la empresa que se vendieron previamente al público. Una empresa puede decidir recomprar sus acciones para enviar una señal de mercado de que es probable que el precio de sus acciones aumente, para inflar las métricas financieras denominadas por el número de acciones en circulación (por ejemplo, ganancias por acción o EPS), o simplemente porque quiere aumentar su precio. participación en el capital propio de la empresa. para impulsar artificialmente el ROE al disminuir el capital total de los accionistas y rsquo (el denominador).

Recursos adicionales

Esta ha sido la guía de CFI & rsquos para el rendimiento sobre el capital, la fórmula del rendimiento sobre el capital y las ventajas y desventajas de esta métrica financiera. CFI es un proveedor de Analista de valoración y modelado financiero (FMVA) y designación comercial Conviértase en un Analista certificado de valoración y modelado financiero (FMVA) y registro El Analista de valoración y modelado financiero (FMVA) de CFI y la certificación de registro le ayudarán a ganar la confianza que necesita en sus finanzas carrera profesional. ¡Inscríbase hoy! . Para seguir aprendiendo y ampliando sus habilidades de analista financiero, consulte estos valiosos recursos adicionales de CFI:

  • Rendimiento de los activos (ROA) Rendimiento de los activos y fórmula del ROA Fórmula del ROA. El retorno de los activos (ROA) es un tipo de métrica de retorno de la inversión (ROI) que mide la rentabilidad de una empresa en relación con sus activos totales.
  • Guía de EBITDA EBITDA EBITDA o ganancias antes de intereses, impuestos, depreciación, amortización son las ganancias de una empresa antes de que se realice cualquiera de estas deducciones netas. El EBITDA se centra en las decisiones operativas de una empresa porque analiza la rentabilidad empresarial y rsquo de las operaciones centrales antes del impacto de la estructura de capital. Fórmula, ejemplos
  • Valoración de la guía de flujo de caja Guías gratuitas de valoración para aprender los conceptos más importantes a su propio ritmo. Estos artículos le enseñarán las mejores prácticas de valoración empresarial y cómo valorar una empresa utilizando análisis comparables de empresas, modelos de flujo de caja descontado (DCF) y transacciones precedentes, tal como se utilizan en banca de inversión, investigación de acciones,
  • Mejores prácticas de modelado financiero Guía gratuita de modelado financiero Esta guía de modelado financiero cubre consejos y mejores prácticas de Excel sobre supuestos, impulsores, pronósticos, vinculación de las tres declaraciones, análisis DCF, más

Formación de analistas financieros

Obtenga capacitación financiera de clase mundial con el programa de capacitación de analistas financieros certificados en línea de CFI y rsquos Conviértase en un Analista de valoración y modelado financiero certificado (FMVA) y reg. ¡Inscríbase hoy! !

Obtenga la confianza que necesita para ascender en una carrera profesional de alto nivel en finanzas corporativas.

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